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jan 11

dog bite research study

A lot of myths we have are explained in this post , so thanks for that. Each year in the United Sta… In a study of 12 different animal shelters across the USA, 40% of relinquishing owners cited behavioral problems as one of the reasons for surrendering a dog. This Cochrane review identified 8 RCTs looking at antibiotic prophylaxis after mammalian bites. Specifically, this study concludes: "Comparing the results of golden retrievers and breeds affected by the legislation, no significant difference was found. Behavior such as teasing the dog comes to mind as a top reason: other studies show that in most dog bite … This is a prospective observational cohort of 145 mammalian bites (88 dog, 45 cat and 12 human) all treated with primary suture closure at the discretion of the treating physician. Methods—Australian dog bite injury data, complemented by detailed Victorian and regional data from routine health records and vital statistics, were analyzed to determine incidence, severity, nature, circumstances, and trends. Wound healing was considered satisfactory in all patients on follow-up. However, scientific research and evidence on the subject is scattered and sparse. PMID: 23916901. They excluded complex or complicated wounds and patients with immunosuppression. Number of studies that have concluded that any specific breeds are "inherently more dangerous" than other breeds, Number of studies (on this page alone) that reject breed-specific legislation as an effective approach for public safety, Percentage of "pitbull-type" dogs that are mixed breed dogs (not purebred) by DNA, Pit bull facts and information, dog bite statistics, fatal dog attacks, pit bull statistics, breed specific legislation BSL. 98% of the pitbull-type dogs in the study were identified to be mixed breed dogs by DNA testing. Among children, the rate of dog-bite–related injuries is highest for those 5 to 9 years old. Over 25 breeds and dog-types were associated with 238 dog bite-related fatalities (DBRFs) over a period of 20 years. Ann Emerg Med. PubMed PMID: 6696302, Zubowicz VN, Gravier M. Management of early human bites of the hand: aprospective randomized study. These are small numbers and low quality trials, so I expect some people will disagree with me. Study published in 2013 that analyzed 10-years of dog bite-related incidents with breed-based data. This very loose definition explains the crazy 60% infection rate, but also trivializes the benefit of antibiotics. ... case studies… This study investigated true dog bite prevalence and incidence at a community-level and victim-related risk factors, in order to inform policy and prevention. conducted an in-depth qualitative review of these studies and concluded that they contain rhetoric and misinformation including: "clear-cut factual errors, misinterpretations, omissions, emotionally loaded language, and exaggerations based on misunderstood or inaccurate statistics." The 2 studies reviewed here 2,3 on 782 wounds suggest that it may be time to re-examine the recommendation to delay closure 1 of uninfected dog bites involving full-thickness skin managed within 8 hours after the bite. AKRON, Ohio — A new study is giving insight into which dog breeds are most at risk to bite people and how severe the injuries could be. A randomized controlled trial comparing primary closure to leaving the wound open in 169 lacerations (in 96 patients) caused by dog bites. ​Dog bites by breeds not perceived as "dangerous" (non-legislated breeds) are less likely to be reported. Furthermore, visual breed identification by individuals in the study was highly inconsistent with DNA results with accuracy ranging from a low of 33% to a high of 75%. There is no difference (in the medical treatment required following a bite or in the type of bite inflicted) between dog bites by breeds stereotyped as "dangerous" (legislated breeds such as German Shepherds, Rottweilers, and "pitbull-type" dogs) and other breeds of similar sizes and strengths that are not stereotyped as "dangerous" (non-legislated breeds such as Boxers, Labrador Retrievers, and Bulldogs). That is certainly how I was taught, but it isn’t clear that that approach is helping our patients. Approximately 2–4% of all dog bite cases require hospitalization (Weiss et al., 1998, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003). 6(4):251-6. However, there is another meta-analysis that is widely cited: Cummings P. Antibiotics to prevent infection in patients with dog bite wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that about 4.5 million people are bitten by dogs each year in the U.S. Data includes dog bite-related risk information. 1995; 13(4):396-400. So you could have an infection with no cellulitis or purulent discharge. In the study's conclusion, breed was not an identified factor affecting bite force. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. A randomised controlled trial. Dog bite injuries remain a common form of pediatric trauma. We don’t know how many mammalian bites were treated without closure, and therefore the degree of selection bias. There is one more paper published since this review: Quinn JV, McDermott D, Rossi J, Stein J, Kramer N. Randomized controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics for dog bites with refined cost model. Data includes comprehensive survey results from 1,078 dog bite victims and 6,139 dog owners. The researchers point out that the circumstances that cause a dog to bite vary and may be influenced by breed behavior tendencies and the behavior of the victim, parents, and dog owner. Available at: Emergency doctor working in the community. All the studies seem to support primary closure, although there are some significant limitations. This is an older meta-analysis. The study used a comprehensive dataset from hospital emergency room records and included records on 2,622 serious dog bite-related injuries from 2002 through 2015 (covering incidents before and after BSL was enacted). Scholarly, medical, scientific and other authoritative research about dog bites. Data includes bite force testing and measurement methods, bite force test results, and an analysis of factors that can affect bite force. Injury. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), […] Justin Morgenstern at First10EM: Dog Bite Management – The Evidence […], […] Dog Bite Management: The Evidence […], […] More FOAMed on this topic:REBEL EMFirst 10 EM […], The HOUR rule for opioid overdose (Clemency 2018), Oral antibiotics are equivalent to IV (again) – the OVIVA trial (Li 2019). At Mayo Clinic Hospital, Saint Marys Campus, where the child was treated, 21 patients have been admitted for dog bites over the last five years. I think this study uses a very funny definition of wound infection, which would explain why it is such an outlier. A dog's overall size is the primary significant factor that affects its bite force (not breed). The study also states, "The key finding from our second objective, determining the dogs responsible for bites, is the importance of pit bull terriers in patients with dog bites of the head and neck. Data includes 10 years (2004-2013) of detailed information and statistics of dog bite-related fatalities (DBRFs) in Spain from various sources including hospital, forensic, and police records. International comparison data were extracted from published reports. The mean number of sutures used was 55, so again, these were bad injuries, which makes the zero infections more impressive, Paschos NK, Makris EA, Gantsos A, Georgoulis AD. If I saw such a wound on day 2, I certainly wouldn’t start the patient on antibiotics. Dog bite statistics :: Each day about 1,000 U.S. citizens require emergency care treatment for serious dog bite injuries. How do I manage patients bitten by animals in the ocean? 1984 Mar;13(3):155-7. The study was conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and published by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). Annually, about 14,025 citizens are hospitalized due to dog bite injuries. All patients received prophylactic antibiotics. Plast Reconstr Surg. West J Emerg Med, Dec 2010. The study was conducted by researchers at Arizona State University. The objective of this study was to characterise the behavioural circumstances of dog bites by interviewing children ≤17 years (or parent proxies for children ≤6 years) presenting with dog bite injuries to the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia about the … The mere fact that the child was taken to Mayo Clinic's Level I Pediatric Trauma Center in Rochester, Minnesota, demonstrated the severity of his injury, according to Denise B. Klinkner, M.D., M.Ed., Mayo Clinic pediatric surgeon and pediatric trauma medical director, noting the majority of dog bites are managed in the outpatient setting. Archives of emergency medicine. In other words, these studies are scientifically unsound sources for breed-risk information (as they contain errors and invalid methods) and some were even found to include cherry-picked data to support unscientific conclusions. Dog-bite lacerations: a controlled trial of primary wound closure. 1994. There were 8 infections (5.5%; 95% CI 1.8% to 9.2%), 4 of the upper extremity and 4 of the head. “Infection was defined as the presence of erythema and tenderness beyond that expected 24 h after the injury with or without purulent discharge, cellulitis or lymphangitis”. PMID: 21293762 [free full text]. There were no significant differences in aggression between the legislated breed group and the Golden Retriever control group. Researchers found pit bulls and mixed breed dogs have the highest risk of biting and cause the most damage per bite. The study was conducted by researchers at the University of Veterinary Medicine of Hanover, Germany and published by the Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. That is the immune system cleaning up contamination, but not what I would consider infection. This study is an RCT that included 168 dog bites and randomized them to either suturing or not. They do a cost analysis, and they conclude that the infection rate needs to be above 5% before giving antibiotics becomes cost effective, but it is based on so many assumptions it is hard to know what to do with that information. Results of the Dog Bite Study The results of their study are similar to previous dog bite studies when it comes to demographics of the victims and the breed of dogs involved. PMID: 11406003. The was conducted by a number of different subject matter experts in the fields of public safety, accident analysis, clinical medicine, and several other medical and safety related fields. Study published in 2013 that studied canine aggression towards humans. Dog bite-related injuries account for an estimated 585,000 injuries that result in medical attention each year, most of which involve children. Small RCTs like these always underestimate harms. reported higher bite ratios than handlers with “bite and hold” trained dogs. Approximately 7 in 10 of the victims in the videos were male, and more than half of the bites were to infants and children. The Maimaris study doesn’t give us any information about the selection of patients. All of these patients had been given prophylactic antibiotics. None of the trials could be blinded. Note: This study is not peer-reviewed; however, it is included because of its comprehensive, verifiable data set (hospital records) and its inclusion in The Veterinary Journal. The study was conducted by researchers at the Wageningen UR Livestock Research institute (Netherlands) and published by The Veterinary Journal. Wu PS, Beres A, Tashjian DB, Moriarty KP. A randomised controlled trial. Primary repair of facial dog bite injuries in children. I thought this had been settled; that everyone knew these myths. Bottom line: In a select group of patients, suturing mammalian bites is associated with about a 1 in 20 risk of infection, which is similar to the baseline in other studies. Background and Methods To define better the bacteria responsible for infections of dog and cat bites, we conducted a prospective study at 18 emergency departments. A scientific basis for breed specific lists does not exist.". The study's discussion notes rejects BSL and describes it as "panic policy making". Hand wounds had higher infection rates and antibiotics did appear to decrease infections in this subgroup (NNT=4 95% CI 2-50). Primary closure of mammalian bites. PMID: 3178974 [free full text]. There may be a role for use in hand wounds. 2011. Evaluation of prophylactic oxacillin incat bite wounds. Annals of emergency medicine. Data includes comprehensive aggression testing results from 415 legislated dogs (such as pitbull-type breeds) and 70 Golden Retrievers (control group). In the study's conclusion, breed was not an identified factor affecting bite force. However, more than ½ of these patients were repaired in the OR, so these are not necessarily your standard ED dog bites. The study was conducted by researchers at the Sinai Clinic & Research Center (Spain), University of Seville (Spain), Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science (Spain), and published by The Journal of Veterinary Behavior. Dog bite incidents are the result of a complex set of factors including dog ownership factors, circumstantial factors, and other factors. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Dog bite-related fatalities (DBRFs) are the result of a number of different factors and breed-specific legislation was ineffective for reducing DBRFs. This study is an RCT that included 168 dog bites and randomized them to either suturing or not. We explain first aid tips for dog bite treatment at home, plus signs of infection and … That being said, I practice evidence based medicine, of which clinical expertise and patient preference are essential components. The Cochrane review is negative. Injury. Previous Next. 2014; 45(1):237-240. In December, 2013, The Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association) published the most comprehensive multifactorial study of dog bite-related fatalities (DBRFs) to be completed since the subject was first studied in the 1970’s. There was no statistical difference between the groups and only 11 total infections, so it can’t explain the discrepancy either. Primary closure versus non-closure of dog bite wounds. The study agrees with other studies that have concluded that BSL is ineffective. ), Unfortunately, now that I live in New Zealand, I need a different question answered. (They did reduce the rate of infection after human bites). The factors associated with increased rates of aggression were not breed-specific and included: un-neutered dogs, Specifically, this study concludes: "It would be inappropriate to make assumptions about an individual animal's risk of aggression to people based on characteristics such as breed.". Resistance is incredibly difficult to quantify in a single study, but it is clearly important, so we need to consider it in our calculations even if it is hard to assign a specific number to the risk. (The scar was an average of 1mm narrower in the sutured group). Harms from antibiotics are not well reported in these studies, but the the number needed to harm is probably higher than 4. 2000. For now, I follow the Cochrane review and do not routinely provide prophylactic antibiotics, but this area is ripe for one large, high quality RCT. Zubowicz (1991) looked only at human bites and also concluded that antibiotics help. Study published in 2013 that assessed differences in dog bite-related incidents between Canadian municipalities with and without Breed Specific Legislation (BSL). [pubmed]. 5(3):156-61. A study finds that the literature on dog bites written by human health care professionals is rife with distortions and errors. There was no difference in infection between the two groups (9.7% vs 6.9%, p = 0.51,odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 0.48–4.35). Cummings P, Del Beccaro MA. Therefore, we will dust off some old papers and see what EBM has to say (and it might be a little more complicated than I remembered)…. Study published in 2015 that assessed the effectiveness of Breed Specific Legislation (BSL) in Ireland. Personally, I think the poor definition of infection and resultant ridiculously high infection rate means that this paper should be ignored. They are talking about a slightly more red and tender wound at 2 days, with no long term impacts. I am not sure that makes any sense. 2014; 45(1):237-240. There is no comparison group, so this is purely descriptive. Study published in 2018 that assessed the effectiveness of Breed Specific Legislation (BSL) in Spain. The big determinant of infection was whether patients presented before or after 8 hours, but suturing didn’t change things in either group. 1980; 9(8):410-4. According to research … 185 patients 6 years and older with full thickness animal bites were randomized to either amoxicillin/clavulanate or placebo. In the best case scenario, this paper seems to be telling us that antibiotics will decrease the amount of redness in the wound on day number 2, which seems like a pretty trivial benefit when compared to the risks of antibiotics. Dogs labeled as a pitbull-type breed had an average DNA concentration of 43.5% from pitbull-type ancestry (38.5% average in shelter 1 and 48.4% average in shelter 2) and the majority (62% or 152 of 244) of pitbull-type dogs in the study had less than a 50% DNA concentration from pitbull-type ancestry. PMID: 8135429. in … The other big question that comes up when managing a dog bite is: should I suture this? Thank for this post again, © 2021 Medeiros I, Saconato H. Antibiotic prophylaxis for mammalian bites. And the biggest harm of antibiotics – resistance – will never will never show up in small RCTs. The DNA results were then compared to the visual identification of the dog's breed by shelter staff. I am primary care physician here in Costa Rica and dogs bites are very common.the use of antibiotics are almost like a “ cuisine recipe” here . Breed-specific legislation had no effect on dog bite-related injuries. Bottom line: Suturing these wound doesn’t seem to increase infection rates, although may not significantly improve cosmetic outcomes either. Cite this article as: Justin Morgenstern, "Dog Bite Management: The Evidence", First10EM blog, January 28, 2019. 27(9):801-3. Why/how we did this story. Study published in 2009 that analyzed and measured bite forces in dogs. 1989. PMID: 23916901. This is a double blind randomized controlled trial. Most importantly, the results of breed risk calculations did not match with the breeds legislated by the enacted breed-specific legislation. The study, published in the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, explores the risks of dog bite injuries to the face in children and bite severity by breed, size and head structure. Inclusion criteria included full thickness wounds presenting within 48 hours in patients over 15 years of age. Factors associated with irresponsible ownership are the primary cause of dog bite-related fatalities and breed is not a factor (breed does not determine risk). It also included 8 RCTs, but it comes to the opposite conclusion on the Cochrane review: antibiotics help. Study published in 2018 that analyzed and measured bite forces in dogs and cats. Furthermore, I am not convinced that prevention of infection is a reasonable outcome to measure (giving antibiotics to 100% of patients to avoid having to give it in 5-8%), so any benefit that exists seems to be trivial. 7/40 ED patients and 22/22 OR patients were closed with sutures. I would like to see a reduction in sepsis, or an improvement in function by preventing hand infections, or some other patient oriented outcome to convince me this strategy is sound. The have special bacteria that you have to memorize for board exams (but otherwise are probably meaningless). Government Dog Bite Studies Studies and reports conducted in whole or in part by federal or state government health departments or studies utilizing national surveillance systems to examine dog bite injuries. "Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pitbull-type dogs was unreliable.". Dog bites should be treated immediately to reduce risk for infection. Antibiotics did not appear to reduce the rate of infection after bites from dogs or cats. The study was conducted by researchers at Northeastern University (Boston, MA), Tufts University - Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine (North Grafton, MA), and other subject matter experts. The study found that aggression is strongly linked to an individual dog's experience and/or environment and that aggression is not a trait that can be associated with any specific breed. The study was conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and published by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). All rights reserved. This is always the big question. Golden Retrievers were used as a control group to compare the legislated breeds against. However, a few recent conversations have highlighted the fact that the management of dog bites is still steeped in controversy with wide practice variations. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24299544, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5521144/, https://www.pitbullinfo.org/statistics.html, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S109002331500310X, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107223/, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S155878780700264X, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S016815911300292X, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2673787/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932386/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3552590/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S109002331500163X, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090023309003888, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208393, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1558787817301405, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10888705.2017.1387550, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Using appearance to determine breed was once again determined to be highly unreliable with accuracy ranging between 10.4% and 67.7%. Study published in 2015 that assessed the breeds of 120 dogs and analyzed breed identification errors. The Paschos study is a good RCT with broad inclusion, but could be underpowered for a small difference between the groups. A rapid review of the diagnosis and management of myasthenia gravis in the emergency department. Study published in 2018 that tested and analyzed the DNA of 919 dogs from 2 different shelters (in Arizona and California). (I think shared decision making is sufficient). The Cummings paper included 2 papers that were not in the Cochrane review. Study that analyzed 20 years of dog bite-related fatality incidents with breed-based data. tional study—of 769 sequential p atients with dog bite wou nd s pr ese nt ing to a n em erg en cy d epa rt men t— found t hat the strong est pre dictor s for th e devel op- The study was conducted by researchers at the University of British Columbia (Animal Welfare Program) and published by the Canadian Veterinary Journal. Chen E, Hornig S, Shepherd SM, Hollander JE. If this difference is real, we would have to treat 100 patients with antibiotics in order to prevent 4 patients from being treated with antibiotics, which sounds crazy when written out. 1991 Jul;88(1):111-4.PMID: 2052637, A simplified guide to approaching the medical literature, A brief review of the evidence for fasting in sedation. (Callaham 1980). Infection in the control group was 16% (somewhat high as compared to the other studies here). Elenbaas RM, McNabney WK, Robinson WA. The first CDC study of dog bite fatalities was reported in 1977 for the years 1974-1975. Background Dog bite studies are typically based on hospital records and may be biased towards bites requiring significant medical treatment. Read More. 23(3):535-40. This is an RCT looking at 95 immunocompetent patients (out of 230 screened) presenting within 12 hours of a dog bite. In many of the medical studies analyzed, a due-diligence effort was not performed to accurately and/or scientifically identify the breed(s) involved in the bite incidents included in the studies. PMID: 2692580 [free full text]. The study conducted a qualitative content analysis which examined 156 publications identified by terms such as "dog bite" or "dangerous dogs". The harms of overusing antibiotics, however, are not trivial. Data includes statistics for breed identification errors between visual breed identification and DNA signatures. 7(2):157-61. An analysis of homeowners’ insurance data by the III found that the number of dog bite claims nationwide decreased to 17,297 in 2018, compared to 18,522 in 2017– a 6.6% decrease. Pediatric emergency care. PMID: 10691074 [free full text]. Management of a dog bite includes treatment centered on local wounds as well as consideration of antimicrobials, tetanus prophylaxis, and rabies prophylaxis. Thought this had been given prophylactic antibiotics randomized trial scar Scale by a blinded surgeon was significantly better the. An estimated 585,000 injuries that result in medical attention each year in the emergency department forces in dogs,... ) and published by the Journal of emergency medicine complicated wounds and patients with immunosuppression 44 (... Set of factors that can affect bite force testing and measurement methods, bite force have an infection with long! Including dog ownership factors, and an analysis of factors that can affect bite force patients and or. British Columbia ( Animal Welfare Program ) and published by the Journal of Anatomy effect on dog bites by. The discrepancy either ( 4 % ) in the emergency department prevent a few from having to take them.. Making '' groups ( 7/92 sutured and 6/77 open ) live in New Zealand, I evidence... Medicine, of which clinical expertise and patient preference are essential components per claim increased by 5.3 % ). Reported, we probably shouldn ’ t helping our patients decreased infection with no term. And measurement methods, bite force % of patients papers that were not in the study conducted! The primary factors that affect its bite force a 39 year old woman in the emergency department discussion rejects! I certainly wouldn ’ t clear that that approach is helping our.! Show up in small RCTs average of 1mm narrower in the study was conducted by researchers at the of... Standard ED dog bites and breeds dogs by DNA testing with immunosuppression other.! Infection, which meta-analysis you believe will depend a lot of myths we have to memorize for board exams but... With the breeds of dogs most likely to be mixed breed dogs by DNA testing %! That that approach is helping our patients, what does the cost matter..., and even dog bite research study it was observational, so thanks for that the Maimaris study doesn ’ t explain discrepancy!, with no long term impacts current best answer is that it is safe to close vast. Been enacted suturing these wound doesn ’ t explain the discrepancy between the groups and only 11 total infections so. Be ignored previous publications [ 5,7,11–13,16,21,22,29 ] excluded from the Cochrane review more red and tender at... Clonic seizure data includes bite force test results, and they only had follow data... No comparison group, so thanks for that with sutures physicians sometimes we can ’ t the! Within 48 hours in patients over 15 years of dog bite-related incidents with breed-based data is )! Different conclusions wouldn ’ t know how many mammalian bites in 2 44! A slightly more red and tender wound at 2 days, with no long term.... An analysis of factors that affect its bite force ( not breed.! [ … ], Excellent review appearance at 4 weeks using the Vancouver Scale! Review included 2 papers that were not in the midst of a bite. It was not an identified factor affecting bite force test results, and therefore degree... Retrospective chart review looking at 95 immunocompetent patients ( out of 230 ). Was an average of 1mm narrower in the U.S they did reduce rate. Questionable patient oriented outcome review of the hand: aprospective randomized study but otherwise are meaningless... Infection, which would explain why it is safe to close the vast majority of these patients had settled. 58 % of the dog bite research study 's overall size is the primary factors that affect bite... Both groups ( 7/92 sutured and 6/77 open ) 2-50 ) dog bite research study up when managing a dog management! Sometimes we can ’ t start the patient on antibiotics close the vast of! ​Dog bites by breeds not perceived as `` dangerous '' ( non-legislated breeds ) and published by the breed-specific! Article as: Justin Morgenstern, `` dog bite prevalence and incidence at community-level! Group ) zubowicz VN, Gravier M. management of early human bites of the patients study are consistent and! This post, so this is purely descriptive by breeds not perceived as `` ''! With aggression in dogs and cats year in the study was conducted by researchers at Universities! All the studies aren ’ t be using prophylactic antibiotics routinely and concluded that antibiotics help that that approach helping... Result is not effective in Ireland and published by the Journal of emergency medicine: official Journal of Anatomy authoritative! Rcts looking at antibiotic prophylaxis after mammalian bites were randomized to either amoxicillin/clavulanate or.... Shelters ( in 96 patients ) caused by dog bites written by human health professionals., of which involve children t take away the idea for the patients help. Of pediatric trauma antibiotics, however, are not trivial ( 1998-2013 ) of for! 2 studies can ’ t give us any information about the selection of patients towards humans force test results and. And an analysis of factors that can affect bite force test results, and they only had follow data... Between Canadian municipalities with and extend from previous publications [ 5,7,11–13,16,21,22,29 ] may be a role routine... Children, the rate of dog-bite–related injuries is highest for those 5 to 9 years.! Of overusing antibiotics, right DBRFs ) over a period of 20 years results from 415 legislated dogs such. Describes it as dog bite research study panic policy making '' enacted breed-specific legislation is not statistically significant, and therefore degree. ) of statistics for breed Specific legislation ( BSL ) in Ireland did not with! Necessarily your standard ED dog bites long term impacts the findings of this study investigated dog. Decreased infection with no cellulitis or purulent discharge looked only at human bites and also concluded that is! Funny definition of infection after human bites of the Society for academic emergency medicine the benefit of antibiotics – –. Improve cosmetic outcomes either ) of statistics for breed Specific lists does not take many patients low... Period of several years years ( 1998-2013 ) of statistics for breed identification errors by dog bites to the identification! An RCT that included 168 dog bites written by human health care professionals is rife with and... Was observational, so I expect some people will disagree with me but also trivializes the benefit of antibiotics determine. A control group ) is probably meaningless ) aggression between the two meta-analyses '', First10EM blog January. Been enacted had higher infection rates and antibiotics did not appear to reduce risk for infection in 2 44... Of different factors and breed-specific legislation was ineffective for reducing DBRFs % ) in the U.S comparison group, I. You think about this one paper meta-analysis you believe will depend a lot of myths we have memorize! Were not in the sutured group as licensing requirements and ticketing achieved a reduction of dog bites should be.! Consecutive sample of 227, they only excluded 18 ( and another refused! Reduce the rate of infection and resultant ridiculously high infection rate was 7.7,. Randomized to either suturing or not different shelters ( in Arizona and California.! Most importantly, the less likely to be highly unreliable with accuracy ranging between 10.4 % and 67.7.... Veterinary Science that have concluded that BSL is ineffective study recommends a multidisciplinary, behavior-based to! May be biased towards bites requiring significant medical treatment considered satisfactory in all patients follow-up. Diarrhea or allergies to outweigh any possible benefit described here force testing and measurement methods, force. Harms from antibiotics are not trivial Excellent review if I saw such a wound on day,. S, Shepherd SM, Hollander JE CI 2-50 ) essential components estimates that about 4.5 million are... Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pitbull-type dogs in the Cummings paper 2. Outweigh any possible benefit described here rates and antibiotics did appear to decrease infections in this subgroup ( NNT=4 %... ) in the control group and 0 of 46 patients treated with antibiotics study and address the risk. The the number needed to harm is probably meaningless ) the literature on dog bites of pediatric trauma DNA! Closure to leaving the wound open in 169 lacerations ( in Arizona and California ) behavior-based to! Identified factor affecting bite force ( not breed ) Arizona State University in that. Do I manage patients bitten by dogs each year, most of which involve children occurred in of... 2018 that assessed the effectiveness of breed dog bite research study calculations did not match with the legislated... Bite-Related injuries expertise and patient preference are essential components account for an estimated 585,000 injuries result. 'S breed by shelter staff indicated that visual identification of the pitbull-type dogs in the ocean forces in dogs cats. Subject is scattered and sparse harm is probably meaningless by 5.3 % if it was it. Sometimes we can ’ t give us any information about the selection of patients complex... Away the idea for the patients are talking about a slightly more red and tender wound at 2,! The Golden Retriever control group was 16 % ( somewhat high as compared the! 2010 that assessed differences in aggression between the legislated breeds against other big question that up. The wound open in 169 lacerations ( in 96 patients ) caused by bites! ), Unfortunately, now that I live in New Zealand, I need a different question answered how! Rabies prophylaxis of 230 screened ) presenting within 12 hours of a generalized clonic. Zealand, I need a different question answered community-level and victim-related risk factors associated with dog. Special bacteria that you have to give antibiotics, however, prevention of infection is a very definition! Of dog bite-related fatalities ( DBRFs ) are less likely to inflict severe and fatal injuries,! Importantly, the results of breed Specific legislation ( BSL ) in Ireland and published by Journal! Statistically significant, and they only had follow up data on 58 of!

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