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jan 11

fluorine number of electrons

α-Fluorine has a regular pattern of molecules and is a crystalline solid, but its molecules do not have a specific orientation. 1. [266], Exposure may not be evident for eight hours for 50% HF, rising to 24 hours for lower concentrations, and a burn may initially be painless as hydrogen fluoride affects nerve function. Watch the final animation closely (it will play continuously). Atomic number [68], In 1529, Georgius Agricola described fluorite as an additive used to lower the melting point of metals during smelting. For this purposes, a dimensionless quantity the Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most commonly used. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. Around 4.5 million tons of ore and revenue of US$550 million were generated in 2003; later reports estimated 2011 global fluorochemical sales at $15 billion and predicted 2016–18 production figures of 3.5 to 5.9 million tons, and revenue of at least $20 billion. [23] Hydrogen sulfide[23] and sulfur dioxide[24] combine readily with fluorine, the latter sometimes explosively; sulfuric acid exhibits much less activity, requiring elevated temperatures. Atomic Mass 18,9984032 Learn more about the atomic mass. The atomic number of fluorine is 9 and it requires one electron to complete the octet. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. [198] The global market was estimated at just under $6 billion in 2011 and was predicted to grow by 6.5% per year up to 2016. About 20% of manufactured HF is a byproduct of fertilizer production, which produces hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6), which can be degraded to release HF thermally and by hydrolysis: Moissan's method is used to produce industrial quantities of fluorine, via the electrolysis of a potassium fluoride/hydrogen fluoride mixture: hydrogen and fluoride ions are reduced and oxidized at a steel container cathode and a carbon block anode, under 8–12 volts, to generate hydrogen and fluorine gas respectively. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. Fluorides, unlike other halides, are insoluble and do not occur in commercially favorable concentrations in saline waters. ", "Perfluoroalkyl Acids: What is the Evidence Telling Us? asked by anon on August 29, 2011 basic chem 1)an atom has a mass number of 27 and 14 neutrons. Research in this area is usually driven by commercial applications;[157] the compounds involved are diverse and reflect the complexity inherent in organic chemistry. First Ionization Energy of Fluorine is 17.4228 eV. [63][102][192], Organofluorides consume over 20% of mined fluorite and over 40% of hydrofluoric acid, with refrigerant gases dominating and fluoropolymers increasing their market share. [63] Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were designed as replacements; their synthesis consumes more than 90% of the fluorine in the organic industry. Fluorine is used to fluorinate uranium tetrafluoride, itself formed from uranium dioxide and hydrofluoric acid. Feel free to ask a question, leave feedback or take a look at one of our articles. [247] An Alliance Pharmaceuticals effort reached clinical trials but was abandoned because the results were not better than normal therapies.[248]. [91][195], Halogenated refrigerants, termed Freons in informal contexts,[note 18] are identified by R-numbers that denote the amount of fluorine, chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen present. [282][283] With one-tenth the ODP of CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the current replacements,[284] and are themselves scheduled for substitution by 2030–2040 by hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) with no chlorine and zero ODP. [86][88] In 1886, after 74 years of effort by many chemists, Moissan isolated elemental fluorine. [55] This is because stellar nucleosynthesis processes bypass fluorine, and any fluorine atoms otherwise created have high nuclear cross sections, allowing further fusion with hydrogen or helium to generate oxygen or neon respectively. [61][62][63][64][65] Fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F), which contains most of the world's fluoride, is an inadvertent source of fluoride as a byproduct of fertilizer production. [277] Dangers from toothpaste are aggravated for small children, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends supervising children below six brushing their teeth so that they do not swallow toothpaste. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. [184], The largest application of fluorine gas, consuming up to 7,000 metric tons annually, is in the preparation of UF6 for the nuclear fuel cycle. [61], Fluorite: Pink globular mass with crystal facets, Fluorapatite: Long prism-like crystal, without luster, at an angle coming out of aggregate-like rock, Cryolite: A parallelogram-shaped outline with diatomic molecules arranged in two layers, Other minerals such as topaz contain fluorine. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Since UF6 is as corrosive as fluorine, gaseous diffusion plants required special materials: nickel for membranes, fluoropolymers for seals, and liquid fluorocarbons as coolants and lubricants. [290][291][294], Chemical element with atomic number 9 and a atomic mass of 19, U.S. hazard signs for commercially transported fluorine. Fluorine forms a negative ion by gaining an electron during bond formation. [136][137] The pnictogens form trifluorides that increase in reactivity and basicity with higher molecular weight, although nitrogen trifluoride resists hydrolysis and is not basic. The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. [79][173] Regulator valves and pipework are made of nickel, the latter possibly using Monel instead. [104][105][106], Covalent bonding first comes to prominence in the tetrafluorides: those of zirconium, hafnium[107][108] and several actinides[109] are ionic with high melting points,[110][note 12] while those of titanium,[113] vanadium,[114] and niobium are polymeric,[115] melting or decomposing at no more than 350 °C (660 °F). [2], Fluorine's first ionization energy is third-highest among all elements, behind helium and neon,[14] which complicates the removal of electrons from neutral fluorine atoms. China and Mexico are the major suppliers. [266][271], Soluble fluorides are moderately toxic: 5–10 g sodium fluoride, or 32–64 mg fluoride ions per kilogram of body mass, represents a lethal dose for adults. Carbon tetrafluoride is formally organic, but is included here rather than in the. The halogens are located on the left of the noble gases on the periodic table. Alkali metals cause explosions and alkaline earth metals display vigorous activity in bulk; to prevent passivation from the formation of metal fluoride layers, most other metals such as aluminium and iron must be powdered,[19] and noble metals require pure fluorine gas at 300–450 °C (575–850 °F). [152], The carbon–fluorine bond is organic chemistry's strongest,[155] and gives stability to organofluorines. [290][291][294] High doses of PFOS and PFOA cause cancer and death in newborn rodents but human studies have not established an effect at current exposure levels. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), which are sparingly water-soluble owing to their acidic functional groups, are noted persistent organic pollutants;[289] perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are most often researched. [134] Carbon tetrafluoride is tetrahedral and inert;[note 15] its group analogues, silicon and germanium tetrafluoride, are also tetrahedral[135] but behave as Lewis acids. Fluorine is not essential for humans and mammals, but small amounts are known to be beneficial for the strengthening of dental enamel (where the formation of fluorapatite makes the enamel more resistant to attack, from acids produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars). [184] Fluorine is monoisotopic, so any mass differences between UF6 molecules are due to the presence of 235U or 238U, enabling uranium enrichment via gaseous diffusion or gas centrifuge. [76][86][87] Frémy's former student Henri Moissan persevered, and after much trial and error found that a mixture of potassium bifluoride and dry hydrogen fluoride was a conductor, enabling electrolysis. [69][70][note 5] He penned the Latin word fluorēs (fluor, flow) for fluorite rocks. In the laboratory, glassware may carry fluorine gas under low pressure and anhydrous conditions;[174] some sources instead recommend nickel-Monel-PTFE systems. Fluorine-19 is composed of 9 protons, 10 neutrons, and 9 electrons. [27] Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide react at or just above room temperature,[28] whereas paraffins and other organic chemicals generate strong reactions:[29] even completely substituted haloalkanes such as carbon tetrachloride, normally incombustible, may explode. Form aqueous hydrogen fluoride, also known as hydrofluoric acid is the ninth element with total! Control centers for possible fluoride poisoning reports totaling 87 cases, including one death from ingesting insecticide of electrons a! Pauling scale, symbol χ, is the most industrially significant biopersistence to! Another element, it can be expressed as the mass per unit volume into automobiles fluor, flow for... Information from this website periods because the carbon–fluorine bond is organic chemistry 's strongest, [ 155 ] gives... More than US $ 15 billion a year naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance binding between the nucleus by... 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