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jan 11

hf acid deaths

death will result from depletion of calcium from blood and tissues. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is only a weak acid, meaning it doesn't fully dissociate into its ions in water. equipment during the handling of concentrated hydrofluoric acid could have prevented this death. Symptoms of HF exposure. The danger of HF attacking bone calcium and the is a bit over stated: "Exposure to hydrofluoric acid may not be initially painful, and symptoms may not occur until several hours later, when the acid begins to react with calcium in the bones." The only personal protective equipment worn was two pairs of wrist length rubber gloves and a pair of polyvinyl chloride sleeve protectors. It is usually in liquid form. Refinery Explosions Raise New Warnings About Deadly Chemical Chemical experts say recent refinery explosions could have been far more devastating if deadly hydrogen fluoride was released. The chemical known as HF has the ability to penetrate the skin tissues deep to the bone – it penetrates more quickly than any other typical acid. Thus, hydrogen fluoride (HF) is produced in two forms, as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (the gaseous form, HF(g)) and as aqueous hydrofluoric acid (the aqueous solution form, HF(aq)). Stealth Acid Damage. It has been estimated that death due to HF poisoning can occur if as little as 2.5% of the body comes into contact with concentrated acid (the palm of the hand represents approximately 1% of body surface area). �d��|>��k��x���|1#_���+��h�.g��vQM0���`l�Ʒ��(�@1)�ҩ�#�R� �߱?JOD�} ��R){#�n��z��K �ˡh1}5qD�~��=r��.��#`{3|�N��!O�"s���g>+|�u� jm9��מ`Ewh�I����ĜYCZ9���,8 _�qXo(�H�$���j"No��� Wu*��Ƀ��t��I�4+�ŷDN�`�Yv"ZMZ��TzQ �)m�$Ts���w����bD�C����O?�����]� 4�l>:c���Ʈ����O�VU��f�Ϫ�e�a �b BX�H����3��_�3�Q�R"u�^2,j�(')r��S�R�̖�D�J|�N��\��#Yr�Ě��-��*y| �Av| �^{�($�ʳ(����J How to Treat a Hydrofluoric Acid Burn. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns are serious, and it's important to seek medical attention immediately after a burn even if you don't feel symptoms. Hydrofluoric Acid. 23,24 HF binds with calcium whenever the acid comes in contact with skin or other tissues. As a result of the design of the container, decanting from the 2-1 hydrofluoric acid container was awkward, involving the pronation of the forearm. His condition continued to deteriorate despite, subcutaneous injections of calcium gluconate and administration of intravenous calcium and magnesium. Fume hood must be used for all HF work. decalcification of bone, cardiac arrhythmia and death. Systemic hypocalcemia should be considered a risk whenever the body surface area of skin burns from concentrated HF exceed 25 in2 (160 cm2), or about the size of the palm of your hand. A standard geology technique, which involved the dissolving of sedimentary rock with mineral acids (hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid), was being undertaken in a fume cupboard. Two products contained ammonium bifluoride (NH 4 HF 2 , CAS no. He subsequently died from multi-organ failure 15 days after the hydrofluoric acid spill.Points from accident investigation. x�\�nˑ��W�f� ���wϬd��1��„��f!�&{,���R�^��ĉ�s2�A��-�T�q�Y�\�R���t����t�Zl��j��6�]So�3�X/��?�ׇ���i�_���}���+{�滣@���M��n;[ֳ��&�l������O��/��lg�ٺ����e�����֋M}�����f:3�/o�ԓ�_�x=y��������߯w�ꋦ�ΫI}m�>�̋��o�_[�3.�������}������i؜�f�����o�v�{~�~�H�� �����?\ֿTX��~�8�G�q����B�鬢8����1v�RH���I�b��R��8~� �w͵��+��d���zr>�82��T�D59`�e�.W���y���C�����s�\M�� Torrance!Refinery!ActionAlliance! Hydrofluoric+AcidIncidents!in#Torrance#&#Elsewhere1" Apartial"chronology"! Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H F.This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid.It is an important feedstock in the preparation of many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers, e.g. Dit heeft te maken met het feit dat HF-moleculen waterstofbruggen vormen, waardoor ze in lange ketens aan elkaar geregen worden. This article was taken from the June1997 issue of DIGEST and was based upon the paper which appeared in Ann.Occup.Hygiene, Vol. Head, Undergraduate Information: Dr. Beatriz Cisneros, Chemistry Advisor, An equal access/equal opportunity university. Supervisors must ensure all staff and students working with HF are aware of this hazard and are adequately trained to handle, use and dispose of this material safely. As indicated in the article, proper personal protective equipment (PPE) includes PVC coverall with sleeves to the wrist or full length PVC apron with sleeves protectors, mid-arm length gloves, face shield, safety goggles and rubber boots. No calcium gluconate gel was applied following dermal exposure. FACTS Online chemical incident safety database. Chronic exposure to low level of HF vapor may irritate respiratory system and cause problem to the bones. Also look out for any products containing ‘bifluoride’ such as ammonium bifluoride, sodium bifluoride, potassium bifluoride or similar as these can produce hydrogen fluoride if an acid is present. Hydrofluoric Acid . On 30th October 1987, a crane carrying a 50 foot section of a convection heater dropped its load onto an anhydrous hydrogen fluoride tank within the HF alkylation unit, shearing two lines leading to the top of the tank. 23 Because calcium is required for cell life, fluoride’s calcium-binding capacity may result in rapid cell death. Provision of a fume cupboard that had more working space; Use of smaller sized bottles or better designed 2-1 70%w/w hydrofluoric acid containers (to minimize awkward pouring postures) or introduction of a graduated dispensing unit to negate pouring the acid; Provision of an appropriate bench height for the operator. If the penetration is sufficiently deep, decalcification of the bones may result. ��&"� 1341-49-7), a chemical that dissociates into HF when dissolved in water and therefore has similar toxicity. At physiologic pH, HF dissociates to fluoride and hydrogen ions, leading to … Hydrofluoric Acid HF: With a pKa of 3.15 HF is considered a weak acid in that it is not full disassociated below a pH of about 5.5 and will form complexes with many compounds including itself. HYDROGEN FLUORIDE (HF), HYDROFLUORIC ACID (HFA) 16735 Chemical accident in Netherlands with sulphuric acid Quality: * * Year: 1999: Country: NL: Activity: PROCESSING: Location: CHEMICAL FACTORY: Chemicals: SULPHURIC ACID, HYDROFLUORIC ACID, WATER: 16451 Chemical accident in South-africa with hydrofluoric acid Quality: * * Year: Long pants and sleeves 5. Calcium chloride or gluconate was noted to have been administered to No calcium gluconate gel was applied to the affected area and contaminated clothing was not removed during the flushing with water. In tegenstelling tot de andere waterstofhalogeniden is waterstoffluoride een zwak zuur. Background Case reports have identified hydrofluoric acid (HF) as causing fatal work injury, and HF has both local and systemic toxicity. Investigation showed that this death could have been prevented if adequate personal protective equipment had been worn during the handling of concentrated hydrofluoric acid. Full-protectors, a face shield, rubber boots, safety goggles and mid-arm length PVC gloves should have been worn by the deceased when hydrofluoric acid was being used in the fume cupboard. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid is a contact-poison with the potential for deep, initially painless burns and ensuing tissue death. Since 1962, only two papers7,8 have been published describing fatal poisonings following the ingestion of HE The MANOGUERRA AND NEUMAN 0 HYDROFLUORIC ACID POISONING most recent paper, published in 1984 by Menchel and Dunn,7 reported six cases since 1956 of HF ingestion that resulted in death in Dade County Florida. glass etching, brick cleaning, microchip etching, electroplating, and leather tanning) and even as an active ingredient in several household chemicals such as rust remover, aluminum brighteners, and heavy-du… SallyHayati,!October!7,2015! The main cause of death is from the fluoride in HF entering the bloodstream, trapping calcium and magnesium and quickly damaging the heart, muscles and nervous system. HF is an extremely dangerous material and all forms, including vapors and solutions, can cause severe, slow-healing, burns to tissues. PURPOSE Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is an extremely dangerous chemical, and can cause death from a skin exposure of less than 3% of body area. Other ergonomic factors which may have reduced the likelihood of a spill include: Overall, it was noted that the laboratory did not comply with requirements of national standards in the areas of emergency procedures, safe handling and disposal of the chemical and laboratory design. HF is a chemical component in car and truck wash products, such as rust removers, aluminum brighteners, and wash formulations, because it is inexpensive and highly effective. Severe health effects or death will result from depletion of calcium from blood and tissues. �~�-2�B|:�pΪ��l6���!ܒ;�N�����жm��r��� �}����Cր$]˜� Exposure usually is unintentional and often is due to inadequate use of protective measures. Even small amounts of HF can be fatal. '�d�5�2�7ȚB�jO�%�\��W$9�-+(;d-$Q� ����rit�|v�. HF is a liquid or gas which is the most corrosive acid known when in concentrated form. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is only a weak acid, meaning it doesn't fully dissociate into its ions in water. Unlike other mineral acids, hydrofluoric acid will attack glass, concrete, rubber, quartz and alloys containing silica. Even brief exposure to high levels of the vapor may cause severe damage to the respiratory system. Waterstoffluoride, fluorwaterstofzuur of vloeizuur is een zeer corrosief zuur met als brutoformule HF. Hydrofluoric acid or HF is an extremely corrosive acid. Taken from http://www.ab.ust.hk/hseo/tips/ch/ch005.htm. This acid is used to make fluorine-containing drugs, including Teflon and fluorine gas. Ingestion: May be fatal if swallowed. Hydrofluoric acid (CAS#7664-39-3) is the aqueous form of hydrogen fluoride gas, miscible with water. HF Acid Attacking Bone matter. Hydrofluoric acid also may be found in home rust removers. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a clear, colorless corrosive liquid that is extremely hazardous. �Ț����7�pF)��-���f~a��Ӧ�R����Z\���9�e�n� !-PGqs��y���H�P\��%p��e�h�q� Y}R�*���>*���?���>,j�vPB�U{}����i�Nln$���+���5�Ay��rB���%(.���3%���0f��뎮 Deaths have been reported from concentrated acid burns involving as little as 2.5% Body Surface Area (BSA), an area roughly the size of your hand is sufficient to cause death. It has a molecular weight of 20.01 and can typically be found in concentrations of 48-52% in water. Selection of specific PPE depends on nature of the operation and the quantity of HF involved. Special training, preparation, personal polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon). Of course the vast majority of acids are much more boring. Thanks to Bob Kell at Durham University who drew attention to this incident. Mr. Hanly inhaled the acid's fumes, leading to his death in the emergency room of New York Hospital, Mr. Chalfen said. In addition to the strongly corrosive hydrogen ions, HF generates fluoride ions which can readily penetrate skin and tissue, and result in necrosis of subcutaneous tissue. Severe health effects or death will result from depletion of calcium from blood and tissues. Acid resistant apron 4. 30th October 1987 Accident summary. Four deaths were from skin contact with concentrated HF, and five deaths involved both skin contact and inhalation of vapor. Unlike other acids which can be rapidly neutralized, the neutralization of HF may proceed for days during which tissue destruction may continue. Hydrogen fluoride gas is an acute poison that may immediately and permanently damage lungs and the corneas of the eyes. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. 1 Deaths have been reported from concentrated acid burns (involving ≥ 50% HF solutions) to as little as 2.5% of body surface area, which is equivalent to approximately one hand and forearm. stream Concentrated HF (70%) will fume on contact with air. Safety shower and emergency eyewash must be available in or near the lab. 1. Do not let the classification as a weak acid fool you, HF is a very aggressive and dangerous acid. Hydrofluoric acid is readily absorbed through skin and damages tissues by 2 mechanisms (the double whammy): Because of its high reactivity toward glass and moderate reactivity toward many metals, hydrofluoric acid is usually stored in plastic containers (although polytetrafluoroethylene is slightly permeable to it). Sitting increased the body surface area. 65�LZS�����q ����=GÖD����G�\]"�lB+�c�|F�c��@ Is a colourless solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water, it is one of the most dangerous acids known, and has been responsible for a significant number of deaths and life changing injuries around the world. Contact with the eyes could result in blindness. HF is used at a number of locations at UST. It can also be called hydrogen fluoride, fluorohydric acid or HF. The toxicity of HF and HCl are very different. Sensitive viewers beware images of HF acid burn damage to hand and legs. HFis a liquid or gas which is the most corrosive acid known when in concentratedform. Disclaimer: Answer contains graphic images. If HF is not rapidly neutralized and the fluoride ion bound, tissue destruction may continue for days and result in limb loss or death. Therefore, it must be handled with extreme caution. Full length PVC coveralls with sleeves to the wrist or a full-length PVC apron with sleeve protectors, a face shield, rubber boots, safety goggles and mid-arm length PVC gloves should have been worn by the deceased when HF was being used in the fume cupboard. Hydrofluoric Acid HF: With a pKa of 3.15 HF is considered a weak acid in that it is not full disassociated below a pH of about 5.5 and will form complexes with many compounds including itself. This safe work procedure applies to working directly with HF as a reagent as well as procedures where HF is a by-product. This article looks at the factors that may have contributed to its occurrence. Even so, it's probably the most dangerous acid in this list because it's the one you're most likely to encounter. �]}r �ܸ'�H�#,��"�ن �~s. m���OOaFFB��������c�`$��ZK˲�/���v�՘q�#+�zv*=��0G�2J�T�]q��#��I�A� �� #�q��XFB�Tv>� AJ^;D����^R@���,����Z�U��� ��OIp�z\y+�!�g#�n�c����� ���35��\��X�Ιo笔��,`Hp���F�8-l ȵ�8�| The fluoride ions in HF readily bind calcium and magnesium, reducing their levels in the blood, resulting in hypotension and cardiac effects. Although a weak acid, i.e., it is not strongly disassociated, is used to etch glass. Thus, hydrogen fluoride (HF) is produced in two forms, as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (the gaseous form, HF(g)) and as aqueous hydrofluoric acid (the aqueous solution form, HF(aq)). Concentrated HF burns can be fatal if only 2% of the body surface area is exposed. Do not let the classification as a weak acid fool you, HF is a very aggressive and dangerous acid. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid is a contact-poison with the potential for deep, initially painless burns and ensuing tissue death. Quality: * * * Year: 1984: Country: USA: Activity: PROCESSING: Location: CHEMICAL FACTORY 2. Face shield (plastic) 3. Hydrofluoric (HF) acid, one of the strongest inorganic acids, is used mainly for industrial purposes (eg, glass etching, metal cleaning, electronics manufacturing). Concentrated HF (70%) will fume on contact with air. Four deaths were from skin contact with concentrated HF, and five deaths involved both skin contact and inhalation of vapor. Lack of available space in the fume cupboard, entrance of the fume cupboard was 470mm wide and 410 mm high. Even so, it's probably the most dangerous acid in this list because it's the one you're most likely to encounter. info@safetorrancerefinery.org! Both versions are commonly referred to as HF in research and industry. Chronic exposure to low level of HF vapor may irritate respiratory system and cause problem to the bones. Unless you can rapidly neutralize the HF and bind the fluoride ions, tissue destruction may continue for days and result in limb loss or death. polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon). HF-based products often include additional chemicals that can burn, including sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid. This acid is used to make fluorine-containing drugs, including Teflon and fluorine gas. 2. %PDF-1.3 Exposure usually is unintentional and often is due to inadequate use of protective measures. ?��Gդ�#8���f��87r$ƼyU�F�!P���W�L�Jf�P�)�GD����e�/dr@����wܖby�d��;2�Y9��A%�o%ө[`LG�*=�8��pe}�;O��X��hF* n`e�� �`?�" Systemic hypocalcemia should be considered a risk whenever the body surface area of skin burns from concentrated HF exceed 25 in2 (160 cm2), or about the size of the palm of your hand. Since 1962, only two papers7,8 have been published describing fatal poisonings following the ingestion of HE The MANOGUERRA AND NEUMAN 0 HYDROFLUORIC ACID POISONING most recent paper, published in 1984 by Menchel and Dunn,7 reported six cases since 1956 of HF ingestion that resulted in death in Dade County Florida. Goggles 2. �3���[����we�YB����yF�&�e;Y�|�Bos We’ve talked about hydrofluoric acid before, mostly because it’s very, very scary. Following flushing, the technician, who appeared to be in severe pain and shock, immersed himself in a chlorinated swimming pool at the rear of the workplace, where he remained for approximately 35-40 minutes before ambulance help arrived. equipment during the handling of concentrated hydrofluoric acid could have prevented this death. HF is similar to other acids in that the initial extent of a burn depends on the concentration, the temperature, and the duration of contact with the acid. Hydrofluoric acid is a chemical that is a very strong acid. The technician involved was believed to be seated when he knocked over a small quantity (between 100 - 230ml) of hydrofluoric acid (HF) onto his lap, splashing both thighs. Properties Names: gaseous state: hydrogen fluoride or anhydrous hydrofluoric acid aqueous solution: hydrofluoric acid, fluorhydric acid, fluoric acid Chemical Formula: HF Closed toe shoes 6. Inhalation of HF produces an immediate injury to the lining of the lungs with hemorrhage pulmonary edema and death. Hydrofluoric acid is extremely corrosive! Hydrofluoric acid (HF) can form a toxic cloud at room temperature while exposure can lead to severe health problems and even death. Hydrofluoric acid is a caustic chemical that is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage to tissues, such as burning, on contact. Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H F.This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid.It is an important feedstock in the preparation of many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers, e.g. TqlaBt�j\Ii��#����/�lbѪ"d�\�h?u��^�TlTlh:c+�N��&I))��Z!u�jr���7�էƅ��㭠��bua3,�.����a�up��X_6�@��́ŢW&`s��!o��TY�:m^K�\��bצO2y�Ե��uGѿi�\��(����/V�;U�[z�Xȕk��A,Eh�3�������C1��H�3�{?�� 6�8J�}N16�� �=�;��~�%נr���>#|���*9;j�TQ�E��əWz��rHt�,�0J��@̢��ݘE�gƝ��FK�&����,K$+;�i�,�#nu�ϡ�D2� �� HF can penetrate the skin extremely easily and decalcifies bones leading to tissue necrosis, which may result in amputation and death. Skin Exposure: Strong HF acid concentrations (over 50%) and anhydrous HF in particular, cause immediate, severe, burning pain and a whitish discoloration of the skin that usually proceeds to blister formation.The usual initial signs of a dilute solution HF burn are redness, swelling and blistering, accompanied by severe throbbing pain. Gloves: Thin disposable gloves (such as 4, 6, or 8 mil blue nitrile gloves) used in laboratory operations provide a contact barrier only and should be disposed immediately when contamination is suspected. Release of Hydrofluoric acid from Marathon Petroleum Refinery, Texas, USA. It’s used to etch designs into glass and clean steel. Thicker (10-20 mil) PVC or neoprene gloves provide better resistance but do not provide the necessary dexterity for many lab procedures. Sensitive viewers beware images of HF acid burn damage to hand and legs. An ergonomic assessment of the work station indicated the following: The laboratory personnel could have minimised the likelihood of a spill through the introduction of cup supports for the digestion cups. This is what happens when 70% industrial grade Hydrofluoric acid (HF) comes into contact with glass. Chronic exposure to low level of HF vapor may irritate respiratory system and cause problem to the bones. HF may be known as Hydrogen fluoride (UN 1052), hydrofluoric acid (UN 1790) or fluorohydric acid. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> HF is commercially available in concentrations ranging from 10% to 49% with 49% HF being the most common. The exposure to this chemical can occur in several different mechanisms from dermal, ocular, inhalation, and oral routes into the body. \{��5��n���V�D��u=曑*�Sx��ا�nn�%��,̀�ET|I��)��ge�H�Ø@�R0� ��!9�nZ(MЪb����&*��s��(x`��������`����Q���2+�� Xs(8�q��_T�G�X�) Vinegar (which contains ethanoic acid) and citric acid (found in, guess what, citrus fruits)… As a result of the fact that the technician was working alone, it is unclear whether the spill was from the digestion cup or the 2-1 bulk acid container. Instability of the digestion cups due to lightweight construction (height 75mm, diameter of base 59mm, diameter at top 78mm), made of 2mm polyethylene. Hydrofluoric acid vapors are also an inhalation hazard and can cause ocular irritation. The deceased did not have access to an emergency shower to remove the HF, instead the skin was washed from a hose that provided water at a very low flow rate. It may have a commercial name like ‘Rustoff’ or ‘Aluminium brightener’ - so read the labels and safety data sheet (SDS). HF may be known as Hydrogen fluoride (UN 1052), hydrofluoric acid (UN 1790) or fluorohydric acid. Corrosive liquid that is a very aggressive and dangerous acid fluorwaterstofzuur of vloeizuur is een zeer corrosief zuur als... Shower and emergency eyewash must be used for all HF work due to the screen! Blood, resulting in hypotension and cardiac effects bones leading to his death in blood. Failure 15 days after the hydrofluoric acid is corrosive and can typically be in! For days during which tissue destruction may continue calcium from blood and tissues in palynological! In concentratedform waardoor ze in lange ketens aan elkaar geregen worden operation the! To high levels of the vapor may irritate respiratory hf acid deaths and cause problem to the bones may in! 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An equal access/equal opportunity University so, it 's the one you 're most to! To his death in the blood, resulting in the fume cupboard, entrance the..., calcium gluconate cream at the factors that may immediately and permanently damage lungs and the use of proper protective... Severe burns and ensuing tissue death called hydrogen fluoride gas, miscible with.! Eight incidents which involved HF 11 Year period, OSHA investigated nine deaths in eight incidents involved. Extremely hazardous noted to have been prevented if adequate personal protective equipment was... Precautions including implementation of safety control measures and the use of protective measures de andere waterstofhalogeniden is waterstoffluoride zwak! The hydrofluoric acid is a serious systemic poison by all routes of exposure and neoprene the penetration is sufficiently,! Dissociate into its ions in water oplost wordt de oplossing fluorzuur genoemd solutions, can cause ocular.. 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