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jan 11

john iv of trebizond

Chalkokondyles II.219-220; translated by Anthony Kaldellis, For a discussion of this source, see Kaldellis, "The Interpolations", pp. John sent his brother David to ratify the treaty before Mehmed II himself, which he did in 1458, but the tribute was raised to 3,000 gold pieces. They learned they had misunderstood John's wishes: he had the eyes of one man put out and the hand of the other cut off.[6]. Pero Tafur provides a detail at variance with the account of Pseudo-Chalkokondyles, for he reports that John became emperor with help of the Turkish Sultan. [16], At some point in his reign, John was faced with an attack by the ruler of Ardabil, Shaykh Junayd, who marched upon Trebziond: proposed dates range from the 1430s (E. Janssens) through the 1440s (von Hammer, Finlay, and Miller) to 1456 (Shukurov) or 1456-58 (Bryer). Alexios (1455–1463), who was beheaded at Constantinople. The apprehensiveness towards Genoa was contrasted by friendlier relations with Venice, although the Venetians never recovered their former influence in the Black Sea. The first was from his half-brother George, who returned to Trebizond and made an unsuccessful attempt to seize the throne. Effective Languages (L*) 2.40. Since William Miller wrote his book on Trebizond, the scholarly consensus dated his death to 1458, although with some dissent to 1459 (Lampsides, Kursanskis) or simply state the broad limits 1458/9-1460 (Anthony Bryer). Alexander had fled Trebizond for the Byzantine court in 1429 and had eventually married Maria Gattilusio, the daughter of the Genoese lord of Lesbos. Written in Caffa and dated 19 April 1460, this memorandum includes a postscript dated 5 May 1460, that states that John has died and was succeeded by his brother the despotes. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. 30. translated in Marios Philippides. 259–283. His reign was dominated by ongoing attempts to defend Trebizond from its Turkmen neighbors and the increasingly aggressive Ottoman Empire to the west. As early as 1434 he had responded to the letters of Pope Eugenius IV, in marked contrast to earlier emperors of Trebizond, who had ignored papal missives. John then fled to Georgia. She was a daughter of King Alexander I of Georgia. Further diplomatic initiatives by Genoa failed in 1443, and in 1447 the Genoese of Caffa advanced on Trebizond with their fleet, threatening to set up an embargo. John II Megas Komnenos (Greek: Ἰωάννης Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1262 – 16 August 1297) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1280 to 1297. tutto esatto qualsiasi . AR Asper (14mm, 0.64 g, 5h). No contemporary chronicler or historian recorded the actual date of John's death. The year "1459" in the letter carried by the embassy of Ludovico da Bologna was an error in transcription: the original letter has not been found, and may no longer exist. [19] In discussing this document, Thierre Ganchou explains that it confirms clearly a terminus ante quem for John's death of 22 April 1460. According to Pseudo-Chalkokondyles, John had instructed them to only bring his father to him, but the men thought John would be more grateful if they killed his father the Emperor, and did so. (13mm, 0.50 g, 6h). After the Fall of Constantinople to Mehmed II in 1453, Trebizond and the Morea were left as the last remnants of the Byzantine imperial tradition. The two armies met at Kapanion. An alternative identification is that she was the daughter of the Crimean Khan, Hacı I Giray.[21]. Cf. Further diplomatic initiatives by Genoa failed in 1443, and in 1447 the Genoese of Caffa advanced on Trebizond with their fleet, threatening to set up an embargo. Pero Tafur, in his travel memoirs, records that when he visited Trebizond in 1438 John IV had a Turkish wife. Ganchou explains the discrepancies in the rest of the evidence facilely. KurÅ¡anskis has argued that Alexios was correctly the son of John's brother Alexander. [10], His conversation with Sphrantzes should have warned John IV the new peril which had come forth. His reign was dominated by ongoing attempts to defend Trebizond from its Turkmen neighbors and the increasingly aggressive Ottoman Empire to the west. John IV began his reign by punishing the physical murderers of his father, then burying his father in state in the metropolitan cathedral. John IV of Trebizond. He was the youngest son of Emperor Manuel I and his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, a… [16], At some point in his reign, John was faced with an attack by the ruler of Ardabil, Shaykh Junayd, who marched upon Trebziond: proposed dates range from the 1430s (E. Janssens) through the 1440s (von Hammer, Finlay, and Miller) to 1456 (Shukurov) or 1456-58 (Bryer). While in Georgia John married Bagrationi, a daughter of King Alexander I, but he could not obtain sufficient support to establish himself in Trebizond. The Metropolitan of Trebizond joined the Byzantine clergy at the Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence (1438-1439). He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. [3] Here he found a large vessel full of arms, and in exchange for appointing its owner his protostrator the vessel and its crew brought him home in 1429. Biography. As early as 1434 he had responded to the letters of Pope Eugenius IV, in marked contrast to earlier emperors of Trebizond, who had ignored papal missives. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. The two armies met at Kapanion. Emperor of Trebizond, 1446-1458. Tema. [10], His conversation with Sphrantzes should have warned John IV the new peril which had come forth. Apr 1, 2015 - Bagrationi (c.1411/2 – before 1438) was the first Empress consort of John IV of Trebizond. νός, Iōannēs IV Megas Komnēnos) (c. 1403 – c.1459 [1]) was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. Empire of Trebizond - John IV Reigned: 1446 - 1458 A.D. Denomination: AR Asper Obverse: St. Eugenius seated on horse walking right. Concordanza . John IV Megas Komnenos was Emperor of Trebizond from 1429 until his death. Byzantine John IV, Trebizond. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene.John had been… [22] However, KurÅ¡anskis has shown that John had only one child—Theodora Megale Komnene, better known by her Mongol appellation "Despina Hatun". Chalkokondyles II.222; translated by Kaldellis. An alternative identification is that she was the daughter of the Crimean Khan, Hacı I Giray.[21]. b. Abt 1403. d. 1459. They learned they had misunderstood John's wishes: he had the eyes of one man put out and the hand of the other cut off.[6]. The "Europäische Stammtafeln" considers this second wife to have been a daughter of Dawlat Berdi. According to the Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten (1978) by Detlev Schwennicke, Bagrationi was dead by 1438. parole . John IV was married twice, first to an unnamed daughter of King Alexander I of Georgia,[20] then prior to November 1437 he married the daughter of a Turkish sultan. Ask Login. Once these two sources are accepted as plausible, then there is no longer any basis to reject the evidence of the lost inscription Fallmerayer reported seeing on the Kule boylu. This may have been settled with the discovery of a memorandum in the Genoese archives. [23] The two doubtful children are: Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! Her first name is unknown. 3 likes. John left for Trebizond on 25 April 1282 with his new wife, Eudokia Palaiologina. [9] In February 1451 the Byzantine diplomat George Sphrantzes arrived in Trebizond seeking a bride for his emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos. He was a son of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene. Ask Login. Reverse: John seated on horse walking right. This expedition did not seriously affect Trebizond itself, but attacked Trebizond's dependencies in the Crimea and was partly destroyed by a storm on its return journey. The Europäische Stammtafeln considers this second wife to have been a daughter of Dawlat Berdi. According to a passage considered to be an interpolation in the history of Laonikos Chalkokondyles, he accused his mother Theodora of having an affair with an unnamed protovestiarios, whom he killed, then held his parents captive in the citadel until the palace staff released them. The penultimate Trapezuntine ruler, John IV, recognized the threat of the Ottomans. 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